The most basic partition of exercises used in sports training is the following:

  • Exercises unswervingly pertinent in competition
  • Those that, while not being openly applicable in competition, still prepare for it – for instance, procedural drills or direction exercises to cultivate time-space orientation
  • Exercises that inhibit injuries and overtraining, or expedite physical and mental recovery

Exercises that do not accomplish the above necessities are impractical and ought to be thrown out. One such exercise is jumping jacks. Although it is used quite frequently, there is no technique in sports that is comparable to and can be enhanced by doing jumping jacks. More importantly, jumping jacks can neurologically muddle the individual doing them. Even for people not dynamically engaging in competitive sports, jumping jacks can cause deterioration to an out-of-synch, homo-lateral pattern of motion (left arm swings forward with the left leg, right arm with right leg) and a vague sensation of confusion. In another structural scheme, sports exercises are allocated into 4 groups; general exercises, directed exercises, sport-specific exercises, and competitive exercises. Moreover, restorative exercises such as relaxation exercises, breathing exercises, and stretches. The foundation for separating exercises into the above-mentioned 4 groups is the resemblance of their form to the sport technique, likeness of bodily processes (energy sources, kind of muscle fibres most engaged), and resemblance of mental processes such as the sort of concentration of attention and operative thinking. Operative thinking is closely connected to the activity, and is used for analysing the opponent, knowing due to experience what and what not to take note of, determining in an instant when and how to perform and react, knowing when and how to manoeuvre, and modifying action to sport-specific incentives.





  • Kilgore, Lon, and Michael Hartman. Fit. Iowa Park, Tex.: Killustrated Books, 2011.
  • Kurz, Thomas. Science of sports training: how to plan and control training for peak performance. Island Pond, VT, U.S.A.: Stadion, 1991.