The ability or capability to execute physical work necessitates energy. In the human body, the transfiguration of chemical energy to mechanical energy is necessary for movement to occur. Bioenergetics, or the course of energy in a biological system, chiefly concerns the transformation of food (or large protein, carbohydrate, and fat molecules) that encompasses chemical energy, into biologically practical forms of energy.
The breakdown of chemical bonds in these particlesdischarges the energy crucial to performing physical activity. The process of breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules, for instance the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, is usually accompanied by the discharge of energy and is called ‘catabolic’. The production of larger molecules from smaller molecules can be accomplished using the energy released from catabolic responses.
This constructive process is labelled ‘anabolic’, and an illustration is the development of proteins from amino acids. The human body is in a relentless state of anabolism and catabolism, which is demarcated as metabolism, or the total of all the anabolic and catabolic reactions in the body. Energy attained from catabolic reactions is used to fuel anabolic reactions through an intermediate particle, known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Devoid of an adequate supply of ATP, muscular activity and muscle growth would not be conceivable. Adenosine triphosphate is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups. Adenosine is the grouping of adenine (a nitrogen-holding base) and ribose (a five-carbon sugar). The breakdown of one particle of ATP to produce energy is recognised as hydrolysis, because it entails one molecule of water. It is categorised as a high-energy molecule because it stockpiles large sums of energy in the chemical bonds of the two phosphate groups. Because muscle cells stockpile ATP only in limited quantities and activity calls for an unceasing supply of ATP to deliver the energy needed for muscle actions, ATP-developing processes must transpire in the cell.
Campbell, Bill I., and Marie A. Spano.NSCA's Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2011.