Factors Affecting RecoveryHydration Water is critical to recovery from vigorous exercise. Altogether, virtually every biological process happening in the human body takes place in water. Dehydration causes forfeiture of performance, and when it is severe it can be disastrous. But how much water do we need to ingest to aid in recovery and elude overtraining? Most fluid intake standards found in the research data show that somewhere between 1.2 litres and 1.6 litres per day is adequate for upholding hydration status in healthy humans who exercise a little. These endorsements must account for diverse environmental conditions (i.e., the hydration needs of someone in Miami will be different than someone in Gloucester, so there can be no givens regarding fluid intake). Self-selected fluid intake in response to thirst possibly embodies an appropriate method for preserving health and function under most conditions. But does it characterise an intake that can facilitate recovery from extreme training? An amplified metabolic rate increases the requisite for water. Increasing packing of energy substrates in the muscle augments the necessity for intracellular water. Bigger, more active individuals have need for more water so as to support their larger quantity of metabolically active tissue, the enlarged caloric cost of gradually larger workloads, and their less-efficient heat discharge features. A decent rule of thumb might be 1 litre for every 1000 calories used. A 4000 calorie per day expenditure would require 4 litres of water. This volume may appear quite high, but bearing in mind the needs of a tremendously active individual undertaking training several hours per day, it is a sensible recommendation, and in truth might still be insufficient for a warm training setting. One last deliberation is which fluids count toward hydration. Many widely held health consultants will confidently state that only water and a few other ‘natural’ brews count toward hydration. In reality, everything that contains water, even food high in water, counts toward water intake. Water itself is the best rehydrating fluid since it can be ingested faster than commercial drinks, but every fluid ingested contributes in some capacity. BibliographyCampbell, Bill I., and Marie A. Spano. NSCA’s Guide to Sport and Exercise Nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2011.Rippetoe, Mark, Lon Kilgore, and Glenn Pendlay. Practical programming for strengthtraining. Wichita Falls, Tex.: Aasgaard Co., 2006.